CIVICS: Comprehending internet voting impact on open government: An international comparative study

This project aims to recognise the impact of internet voting on open government in international comparative perspective. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. 
Lead Researcher: Dmytro Khutkyy, Research Fellow in Digital Governance, University of Tartu,

Project period: September 2021 - August 2023

The CIVICS project is inspired by the assumption that the use of i-voting for e-consultations, e-referenda, and especially e-elections promotes direct, participatory, and representative democracy as well as more transparent, engaging, and accountable governance. To test this, the project puts forward the objectives to identify i-voting impact on voters, civil society organisations, authorities, open government as a system, and discover conditions affecting i-voting impact in these aspects. 

In contrast to the available studies that focus on a single country, a specific i-voting campaign, or a narrow aspect and miss the link to open government, this research endeavours to examine a more complete set of i-voting countries, campaigns, instruments, dimensions and associate i-voting with open government. Conceptually it views open government as collaborative public policy making by citizens and authorities. Methodologically it is being studied by policy analysis of i-voting legislation and reports; content-analysis of public and civic websites; statistical analysis of i-voting results tables, log files and public opinion surveys; and qualitative comparative analysis of i-voting- and open government-related variables. 

The project is carried out at the Johan Skytte Institute of Political Studies, University of Tartu, Estonia – the pioneer institution researching e-government in the only country in the world that has implemented i-elections for all voters. Principally, the action is performed in collaboration with the ECePS ERA Chair in E-governance and Digital Public Services research team, mastering advanced methods of statistical analysis, and using mixed methods to model and assess the impact of i-voting on open government venturing to circulate academic findings and practical recommendations for a more influential i-voting, empowered e-participation, and good e-governance.

Project outputs and results: 

Academic publications: 

Khutkyy, Dmytro. 2022. “The Diffusion of Electronic Voting for Participatory Budgeting Projects: Evidence from Ukraine.” pp. 117-120. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Joint Conference on Electronic Voting E-Vote-ID 2022. Edited by R. Krimmer et al. Tartu, Estonia: University of Tartu Press. DOI:

Media appearances: 

Подкасты CEURUSa. Подкаст 21: Партнерство «Открытое Правительство» (OGP) // Подкасты CEURUSa. – 2021, 20 декабря.

Кульчицький І., Хуткий Д. Вебінар 24 листопада 2021 року онлайн «Цифрова демократія та відкрите урядування: особливості тематики та досвід отримання індивідуального гранту», онлайн.

Khutkyy, Dmytro. 2022. “Ukraine’s Wild Card.” European Digital Development Alliance, March 15, 2022.

Hutkõi, Dmõtro. 2022. “Ukraina on selle sõja jokker.” Postimees, March 15, 2022. (in Estonian)

Project-related open data

Khutkyy, Dmytro. 2022. “PB voting data.” DataDOI. DOI:

Khutkyy, Dmytro. 2022. “OGP voting data.” DataDOI. DOI:

Khutkyy, Dmytro. 2022. “OGP voting cases.” DataDOI. DOI:


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